Hippocampus: anatomy and functions (2023)

Author:Roberto Grujicic MDCritical:Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD
Last review: December 05, 2022
Reading time: 18 minutes

Hippocampus: anatomy and functions (1)



Synonyms:Formation of the hippocampus, hippocampus proper,Show more...

Hehippocampusit is a paired structure present in each temporal lobe of the brain. It takes its name from the Greek word forSeahorse, because it looks like this little fish that swims upright.

The hippocampus is part of a larger structure in the temporal lobe calledformation of the hippocampus. The formation of the hippocampus extends from the amygdala in front to the splenium of the corpus callosum in the back. The formation of the hippocampus is an important part of thelimbic systemand consists of three main parts:

  • Hehippocampus(also known ashippocampus proper or horn of Amun),
  • Hetoothed turn,
  • Hea small room.

The elongated structures of the hippocampus lie along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus.brainand form the floor and part of the medial wall of the inferior horns of thelateral ventricles. The hippocampus has many functions, but is best known for its role inapprenticeshipymemory.

Key facts about the hippocampus
layersMolecular, pyramidal and polymorphic layers
camposCA1, CA2, CA3, CA4
afferent pathwaysEntorhinal cortex, septal area, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, premamillary region, reticular formation
efferent pathwaysSeptal area (precommissural fornix), anterior thalamic nucleus, hypothalamic mammillary bodies (postcommissural fornix), entorhinal cortex, cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, contralateral hippocampus
functionsLearning, memory, aggression, anger, hormone regulation


  1. Anatomy
  2. Internal structure
  3. toothed turn
  4. subicular cortex
  5. Hippocampal connections: pros and cons!
    1. hippocampus input
    2. hippocampus output
  6. functions
  7. clinical correlations
    1. temporal lobe epilepsy
    2. rabies encephalitis
    3. isquemia cerebral global
    4. alzheimer's dementia
    5. Korsakoff's syndrome
  8. Fuentes

+ show all




(Video) 2-Minute Neuroscience: The Hippocampus

Synonyms:Formation of the hippocampus, hippocampus proper,Show more...

HehippocampusIt is an elongated convex structure that projects from the floor and medial wall of thetemporary hornof the lateral ventricle. It is about 5 cm long and widest anteriorly, where it curves towards the medial surface of the brain.hippocampus properis also called 'a warning horn' meaning the horn of Amun, the ancient Egyptian god.

The hippocampus extends from the amygdala anteriorly, and then narrows as it progresses posteriorly. Some authors divide its surface into three parts: head, body and tail.headThe hippocampus contains several grooves that resemble a foot and is therefore known as the hippocampus.hippocampus foot(L. pes, "hit").

The ventricular surface of the hippocampus is calledreservoir. The alveum is a thin sheet of white matter formed by the axons of the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. It is covered by the ependymal cell layer. Alveolar fibers converge at the medial border of the hippocampus to formmargin of the hippocampuswhich in turn gives rise to the fornix.

area CA1


Synonyms:Horn of Ammons, Horn of Ammons area 1,Show more...

When viewed in cross-section (coronal) section, the hippocampus is subdivided into four designated zonesCA1-CA3(CA- Cornu ammonis). The initial division also included the fieldCA4, but today this field is considered part of the dentate gyrus.

HeCA1field, also known assummer sector, contains the pyramidal cells located closer to the subiculum, while the other two fields CA2 and CA3 are closer to the surface. A special feature of theCA3field to note is that the collaterals of the axonal processes extending from the CA3 pyramidal cells are known as recurrent orSchaffer guarantee, and these fibers actually project back into the CA1 field.

Internal structure

Polymorphic layer of the hippocampus


The inner hippocampus is made up ofarchcortex.Note that the archcortex has fewer cortical layers than theneocorteza(which has six layers), and thepaleocorteza(who has four or five).

(Video) Memory and the Hippocampus

The archcortex of the hippocampus is composed mainly ofpyramidal cells. Like all cells, pyramidal cells have afferent processes (dendrites) and efferent processes (axons). It should be noted that the dendrites of a pyramidal cell extend from both the apex and the base. the basaldendritesthey extend toward the surface of the lateral ventricles; while the apical dendrites extend away from the lateral ventricles and towards the dentate gyrus.

Heaxonspyramidal cells take information received by the hippocampus and send it to other brain structures; These efferent processes extend from the pyramidal cell body, they travel through a structure calledreservoirlayer of fibers near the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle and then enter the entorhinal cortex or therange-fornix.

The hippocampal archcortex has four main layers:

  • Helacunar molecular layerIt is the deepest layer of the hippocampus archcortex. This layer is mainly composed of interneurons.
  • Heradiate layerIt is mainly composed of dendrites of pyramidal cells and stellate cells.
  • Hepyramid layerIt is the thickest and most important layer of the hippocampus. It is composed of densely packed pyramidal neurons. The pyramidal layer merges with the inner pyramidal layer of the neocortex.
  • Hemiddle layerIt is the most superficial layer of the hippocampus, located just below the alveolus. It is composed primarily of basket cell interneurons and shares many structural features with the deeper layer of the neocortex.

Note that some anatomy textbooks use an older classification of hippocampal layers, which divide the hippocampal structure into three layers: molecular, pyramidal, and polymorphic.

toothed turn

toothed turn

a cogwheel


Hetoothed turnIt is a band of cortex located between the superior aspect of the parahippocampal gyrus and
the fimbria of the hippocampus. The dentate gyrus gets its name from its tooth-like configuration. This configuration is created by numerous blood vessels piercing the ventricular surface of the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus.

Like the hippocampus, theirregular giroit is also multilayer; but unlike the hippocampus whose main cell is the pyramidal cell, the main cell of the dentate gyrus is thegranule she was whole. The axons of granule cells are calledmossy fibras, and synapse with pyramidal cells in theCA3hippocampal field.

The three layers that make up the dentate gyrus are (superficial to deep):

  • Hemolecular layercomposed primarily of nerve cell bodies and granules
    cellular dendrites;
  • Heintermediate granular layercomposed of granular cells, the main cells of the dentate gyrus;
  • Hecapa multiformeIt is mainly composed of interneurons.

subicular cortex


Hesubicular Cortexor just thea small roomIt is a transitional area between the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. The main differentiating feature between the hippocampus and the subicular cortex is that thepyramidal she was whole capain the subicular cortex it is significantly thicker than in the hippocampus.

(Video) Functions and Structure of Hippocampus

MainFunctionof the subiculum is to transmit information from the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus to the mammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus and the anterior nuclei of the thalamus.

Do you feel a little confused? Why not test your understanding with someexam questions?You can use them to learn hippocampus anatomy from scratch or to identify gaps in your knowledge.

Hippocampal connections: pros and cons!

hippocampus input

Heentorrinal Cortexit is an important source of two different groups of afferent fibers that provide information for the formation of the hippocampus. Helateral drilling rotaIt arises from the lateral entorhinal cortex and extends to the molecular layer of the hippocampus. Hehalf drilling rotaIt arises from the medial entorhinal cortex, extends through the white matter from the subicular cortex, and enters the alveoli of the hippocampus. Many of these fibers carry olfactory, visual, and auditory information to the hippocampus.

Hediagonal banda of Brocaoriginates in the septal area and acts as part of a feedback loop to the hippocampus from the septal area. The other part of this feedback loop is thepre-commissuralfornix, which allows the septal area to receive feedback from the hippocampus.

The hippocampus also receives afferent information from theprefrontal cortex,anterior cingulate gyrus, youpre-mamillaryregionof the brain, as well as monoamine neural projections from thereticular formation nobrainstem(specifically the locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, and ventral tegmental area). The monoamine pathway, in particular, plays an essential role in mood regulation.

Because of these connections, the hippocampal formation is able to respond to changes in activity in the cortex and brainstem and transmit this information to the brain.hypothalamus, adding an emotional or visceral quality to these changes in brain activity.

hippocampus output

Efferent fibers from the hippocampal formation, which send signals from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain, come from thepyramidal cellshippocampus and subicular cortex. fibers of theamygdala, located anterior to the hippocampus, also travel widely along with hippocampal fibers. These bundles of fibers from the hippocampus and amygdala pass posterodorsally along the body of the lateral ventricle, around the posterior part of the ventricle.thalamus, and then anteriorly along the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle.

stria terminalis

terminal strip

The bundle of fibers coming from the hippocampus is calledfornix; works less thanhard body. The bundle of fibers arising from the amygdala is calledgrooveno terminal, and runs parallel and ventromedial to the tail of the caudate nucleus. The fornix and stria terminalis fiber networks eventually terminate in different parts of the hypothalamus and septal area.

Fornix fibers traveling rostrally to theanterior commissureare calledpre-commissuralfornix. These originate from the hippocampus and subicular cortex and terminate in the septal area. The fibers of the precommissural fornix are organized topographically: this means that fibers near the anterior pole of the hippocampal formation project to the lateral region of the lateral septal nucleus, while fibers near the posterior part of the hippocampal formation project to more medial parts. from the core. lateral septal nucleus.


(Video) Hippocampus

The fornice fibers that travel ventrally behind the anterior commissure are calledpostcomisuralfornix. These fibers originate in the subicular cortex and end in theanterior thalamic nucleusor in the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus. The postcommissural fornix provides parts of thediencephalon, including the anterior thalamic nucleus, the mammillary bodies, and parts of the medial hypothalamus.

neurons of thea small roomit also sends axons to the entorhinal cortex, cingulate cortex, and regions of the prefrontal cortex. Heentorrinal Cortexsubsequently sends axons to the amygdala and parts of the temporal cortex. These networks of connections allow the formation of the hippocampus to send signals throughout thecerebral cortex, even for regions that receive and process different types of sensory information.

there is also acomissural componentof the fornix: The purpose of this part of the fornix is ​​to connect the hippocampus on each side of the brain to each other. The axons that do this predominantly arise from the CA3-CA4 parts of the hippocampus and synapse in the contralateral hippocampus. It is theorized that these connective fibers may provide the pathway by whichspread of seizuresfrom its primary epileptogenic focus in one hippocampus to the contralateral hippocampus, finally allowing a secondary epileptogenic focus to form in the contralateral hippocampus.


Although it's a fairly small structure in the brain, size can be deceiving! The hippocampus performs a number of crucial functions, including the regulation of emotions, motivation, hormonal activity, autonomic activity and memory formation.

Probably the best recognized function of the hippocampus is its role inapprenticeshipymemory. Although the exact mechanisms remain somewhat mysterious, it is believed that the hippocampus receives and consolidates information, allowing the establishment of long-term memories in a process known asLong term potentiation(LPT). It also plays a role in spatial memory, allowing us to keep track of where things are as well as where they are in relation to each other; as such, it is fundamental in the formation of cognitive maps.

There are numerous reports linking tumors, lesions, and epileptogenic activity in humans within the hippocampus with aggressive reactions, ranging from minor hostility to explosive acts of violence. The role of the hippocampus in mediationassaultyangerit seems to depend on the region of the structure that is stimulated: activation of the temporal pole, that is, the region closest to the amygdala, stimulates predatory or fighting behavior; while activation of the region closest to the septal pole suppresses these impulses.

Given the numerous synaptic connections between the hypothalamus and hippocampus, it is not surprising that the hippocampus is also involved inhormones regulationand contributes to severalendocrine functions. The ventral aspects of the hippocampus have been found to harbor dense regions ofestradiol-concentration of neurons, as well as high concentrations ofcorticosteronawhich inhibits the neurons that concentrate estradiol.

It has been postulated that the hippocampus may be selectively sensitive to changing hormone levels, playing a role in supplying hormones.feedback to thepituitary glandthrough their hypothalamic connections. This is believed to occur indirectly through synaptic transmission within the septal area, as well as directly through a pathway calledmedial cortico-hypothalamic treatment. The medial corticohypothalamic tract arises near the temporal pole of the hippocampus and projects to the ventromedial hypothalamus; terminates between the suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei in a region that contains hypophysiotrophic hormones that mediate anterior pituitary functions.

clinical correlations

temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures originating in the temporal lobe, possibly the most epileptogenic region of the brain. These seizures can beconscious focal seizures(simple partial seizures that occur without loss of consciousness) andfocal seizures of altered consciousness(complex partial seizures with loss of consciousness), although generalized seizures may also occur. HeCA1 campoThe hippocampus, known as Sommer's sector, is particularly susceptible to the anoxia that can occur during temporal lobe epilepsy; this may be associated with agitation or aggression, anger, anxiety, paranoia and other emotional phenomena.

rabies encephalitis

Rabies is a bullet-shaped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal (usually a dog, bat, or other mammal) and causes fatal encephalitis (brain inflammation). Once the victim is inoculated with the virus through the bite, the virus ascends to the brain through the peripheral nerves. Initial symptoms are nonspecific and include headache, fever, and general malaise. As the virus progresses, the victim experiences extremecentral nervous systemexcitabilitymanifesting as hypersensitivity to pain, violent motor responses, and seizures. Violent contractions of the pharyngeal muscles causeto swallowdifficult and painful; this is why those with symptomatic rage avoid drinking, even water, and are therefore described as "hydrophobic". These pharyngeal spasms are also the cause of the characteristic foaming at the mouth. Eventually, meningismus occurs, followed by flaccid paralysis; alternations between mania and stupor progress to coma and finally death due to failure of the brain's respiratory center.

The pathognomonic histopathological findings in rabies are round or oval eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions calledNegri bodies, which can be seen in thepyramidal neuronshippocampus and Purkinje cellscerebellum.

isquemia cerebral global

Global cerebral ischemia (also known asdiffuse hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy) is the result of a severe hypotensive episode. Among the cells of the central nervous system, neurons are the most vulnerable to ischemia, although glial cells are also sensitive. Different regions of the brain are also more susceptible than others: the pyramidal cells in theCA1 regionhippocampus, Purkinje cellscerebellum, and the pyramidal cells in the cortex are the most susceptible to global ischemia and can be damaged even if the ischemic episode is of short duration.

alzheimer's dementia

The hippocampus, along with the entorhinal cortex and amygdala, are involved early in the course of Alzheimer's dementia and often become severely atrophied in the later stages of the disease. The hippocampus, in particular, is a site of significant formation for bothneurite plates(collections of dystrophic neurites around a central Aβ amyloid core) andneurofibrilar plots(intracytoplasmic bundles of filaments containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein that surround or even displace the nucleus of the neuron).granulovacuolar degeneration(formation of small clear cytoplasmic vacuoles, each containing an argyrophilic granule) are also seen in abundance in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's patients; It ishirano bodies(eosinophilic inclusion bodies composed primarily of actin filaments) can be seen particularly in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus.

Korsakoff's syndrome

Korsakoff syndrome is a disorder in which damage to the hippocampus results in an inability to form new memories.anterograde memory loss) and recover memories made before the damage (retrograde memory loss). It is typically associated withthiamine deficiency (vitamin B1), which is often associated with chronic alcohol abuse and its toxic effects on neurons, particularly those in the hippocampal formation and Papez's circuit (mamillary bodies, cingulate gyrus, and anterior thalamic nucleus).


All content published on Kenhub is reviewed by experts in medicine and anatomy. The information we provide is based on academic literature and peer-reviewed research.Kenhub does not provide medical advice.You can learn more about our content creation and review standards by reading ourcontent quality guidelines.


  • Kumar, V., Abbas, A. K., Fausto, N. e Aster, J. C.:Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Eighth Edition, Saunders Elsevier (2010), p. 2686, 2710-1, 2730-1
  • ODEN, J.HM, the man without memory. Psychology Today (2012), (accessed March 31, 2018).
  • Anger. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), (accessed January 6, 2018).
  • Siegel, A. and Sapru, H.N.:Essential Neuroscience, Third Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2015), p. 12, 107, 208, 444-9.
  • Sternberg, R.J. e Sternberg, K:Psicologia Cognitiva, Sexta Ed., Wadsworth, Cengage Learning (2012), p. 48-9
  • No, D.K.Temporal lobe epilepsy. Medscape (2017), (accessed March 31, 2018).

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What are three functions of the hippocampus? ›

The hippocampus is an essential part of the brain's limbic system, a group of brain structures in the cerebral cortex responsible for behavioral and emotional responses. Hippocampal function plays a critical role in learning, emotional responses, and memory formation and storage.

What is an example of a function of the hippocampus? ›

The hippocampus helps humans process and retrieve two types of memory, declarative memories and spatial relationships. Declarative memories are those related to facts and events. Examples can include learning how to memorize speeches or lines in a play. Spatial relationship memories involve pathways or routes.

What is the structural anatomy of the hippocampus? ›

The hippocampus consists of two interlocking gray matter folds, the cornu ammonis (or hippocampus proper) and the dentate gyrus. In the axial plane, the hippocampus resembles a seahorse (hence, its name) and it arches around the mesencephalon (hence, the term “mesiotemporal”).

What is the function of the hippocampus in memory? ›

The hippocampus is thought to be principally involved in storing long-term memories and in making those memories resistant to forgetting, though this is a matter of debate. It is also thought to play an important role in spatial processing and navigation.

What happens when hippocampus is damaged? ›

Damage to the hippocampus can cause a condition called amnesia that prevents people from forming new memories and remembering past experiences.

What does the hippocampus do emotion? ›

The hippocampus, located in the medial temporal lobe and connected with the amygdala that controls emotional memory recalling and regulation (Schumacher et al., 2018); it has increased the functional connectivity with anterior cingulate or amygdala during emotional regulation and recalling of positive memory (Guzmán- ...

What emotion does the hippocampus control? ›

The hippocampus is responsible for processing of long-term memory and emotional responses. We would not even be able to remember where our house is without the work of the hippocampus. The hippocampus also encodes emotional context from the amygdala. When you think of the amygdala, you should think of one word, fear.

Is the hippocampus responsible for fight or flight? ›

The amygdala and the hippocampus are two brain structures involved in fear and traumatic stress. The amygdala detects whether a stimulus (person or event) is threatening and the hippocampus, the center of short-term memory, links the fear response to the context in which the threatening stimulus or event occurred.

Does the hippocampus have 6 layers? ›

The hippocampus and dentate gyrus are actually cortex, but it is 3-layered cortex rather than 6-layered cortex as in the neocortex.

Does the hippocampus play a role in depression? ›

The hippocampus is one region that has recently received significant attention in mood disorders research and, although almost certainly not solely responsible for the myriad of symptoms observed in depression, the highly plastic, stress-sensitive hippocampal region may play a central role in depressive illness.

What helps the hippocampus function? ›

Aerobic exercise in particular helps boost BDNF levels and promote hippocampal function. Another study showed that light and moderate exercise increased the size of the hippocampus and enhanced memory retention.

What does the hippocampus activate? ›

The hippocampus is a small, curved formation located deep in the temporal lobe of the brain. As part of the limbic system, the hippocampus has three primary functions: forming new memories, learning, and emotions.

How do you strengthen your hippocampus? ›

Ten Ways To Improve Your Hippocampus Function
  1. Learn Something New. Due to the way the hippocampus works, when you learn something new, you build new neural pathways and strengthen the ones that already exist. ...
  2. Exercise. ...
  3. Eat Fish. ...
  4. Drink Coffee. ...
  5. Eat Blueberries. ...
  6. Stimulate Your Brain. ...
  7. Eat Dark Chocolate. ...
  8. Practice Mindfulness.

Can anxiety damage the hippocampus? ›

Summary: Pathological anxiety and chronic stress lead to structural degeneration and impaired functioning of the hippocampus and the PFC, which may account for the increased risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and dementia.

What disorders are associated with the hippocampus? ›

The following are some of the common conditions in which atrophy of human hippocampus has been reported:
  • Alzheimer's disease[5,6,8,66] Atrophy of hippocampal region in brains is one of the most consistent features of AD. ...
  • Epilepsy[3,6,8] ...
  • Hypertension[3,6,8] ...
  • Cushing's Disease[3,6] ...
  • Miscellaneous Causes[3,6,8]

How is the hippocampus involved in anxiety? ›

An abnormal hippocampus may provide risk to the development of anxiety disorders and PTSD by enhancing sensitivity to active avoidance behaviors. Hippocampal damage leads to facilitated avoidance learning in shuttle avoidance [for review, see Olton (1973) and Black et al.

What happens to the hippocampus during stress? ›

Structurally, human and animal studies have shown that stress changes neuronal morphology, suppresses neuronal proliferation, and reduces hippocampal volume.

What part of the brain controls crying? ›

The region in question is the cingulate gyrus, also referred to as 'limbic cortex', particularly in non-primate mammals where its differentiation is less well developed.

What happens to the hippocampus when drunk? ›

Heavy drinking in college is associated with accelerated hippocampal/para-hippocampal volume decline. Such risky drinking patterns also seem to be associated with more memory blackouts (episodes of alcohol induced memory loss) and worse memory functioning likely mediated via hippocampal brain volume loss.

What causes the hippocampus to shrink? ›

Researchers have found that traumatic events and severe stress can cause shrinkage of this area of the brain, with significant changes observed in both men and women who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder as the result of sexual assault or combat.

What is hippocampus made of? ›

It is composed of densly packed pyramidal neurons. The pyramidal layer merges with the internal pyramidal layer of the neocortex. The oriens layer is the most superficial layer of the hippocampus, situated just inferior to the alveus.

Which gender has a larger hippocampus? ›

For example, women have larger posterior hippocampus than men [40], with differences between the sexes in structural covariance and functional connectivity, indicating differences in connectivity. Studies in humans indicate sex differences in functional brain connectivity [42–45].

What happens if you remove one hippocampus? ›

In short, the hippocampus orchestrates both the recording and the storage of memories, and without it, this “memory consolidation” cannot occur.

What role does the hippocampus play in PTSD? ›

PTSD researchers have often focused on the hippocampus, as it plays a central role in regulating stress hormones and responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and because it is also susceptible to the toxic effects of elevated glucocorticoids (5).

How do you activate the hippocampus of the brain? ›

mental exercises—such as memorizing a poem or a list of words or numbers, reading, writing, or retrieving vocabulary—all activate the hippocampus. deep breathing several times a day to oxygenate the brain adequately (the hippocampus is the most vascularized brain region and the first to suffer from low oxygen).

What hormone does the hippocampus produce? ›

Growth hormone is produced within the hippocampus where it responds to age, sex, and stress.

What is the 3 function of the brain? ›

This complex organ has many functions. It receives, processes and interprets information. Your brain also stores memories and controls your movements. Your brain is one component of your central nervous system (CNS).

What are three functions of the amygdala? ›

The main job of the amygdala is to regulate emotions, such as fear and aggression. The amygdala is also involved in tying emotional meaning to our memories. reward processing, and decision-making.

What does the left and right hippocampus do? ›

The left and right hippocampi encode verbal and visual-spatial memories, respectively. Memories encoded by the hippocampus include aversive and negative memories, and the hippocampus is likely involved in contextualizing negative appraisals to environmental stimuli.

What is the function of the hippocampus MCAT? ›

The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation.

What part of the brain controls happiness? ›

Happiness activates several areas of the brain, including the right frontal cortex, the precuneus, the left amygdala, and the left insula. This activity involves connections between awareness (frontal cortex and insula) and the “feeling center” (amygdala) of the brain.

What part of the brain controls emotions? ›

The limbic system controls the experience and expression of emotions, as well as some automatic functions of the body. By producing emotions (such as fear, anger, pleasure, and sadness), the limbic system enables people to behave in ways that help them communicate and survive physical and psychologic upsets.

What part of brain controls speech? ›

Frontal lobe.

The frontal lobe contains Broca's area, which is associated with speech ability.

What chemical in the brain causes anger? ›

Epinephrine which is also known as adrenaline, is a chemical compound with formula (HO) 2C6H3CH (OH) CH2NHCH3 and is released while becoming angry. Epinephrine is among the chemicals that are released by the adrenal gland when an individual experiences anger or any other form of stress.

What is the amygdala vs hippocampus? ›

The amygdala is specialized for input and processing of emotion, while the hippocampus is essential for declarative or episodic memory. During emotional reactions, these two brain regions interact to translate the emotion into particular outcomes.

What is the fear center of the brain? ›

Many of their studies begin with the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure that is considered the hub for fear processing in the brain.

What is the most important function of the hippocampus? ›

Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory.

What is affected when the hippocampus is damaged? ›

Hippocampus damage can affect memory and learning-related functions. For example, brain injury survivors with hippocampus damage may struggle to recall old memories or create new ones.

What function does the hippocampus not control? ›

Transfer of Long-Term Memories

Although the hippocampus is involved in memory, long-term memories are not thought to be stored within this structure. Instead, the hippocampus is believed to be a transfer center for long-term memories.

What does the hippocampus do when drunk? ›

Heavy drinking in college is associated with accelerated hippocampal/para-hippocampal volume decline. Such risky drinking patterns also seem to be associated with more memory blackouts (episodes of alcohol induced memory loss) and worse memory functioning likely mediated via hippocampal brain volume loss.

Does the hippocampus Control Fight or flight? ›

The amygdala and the hippocampus are two brain structures involved in fear and traumatic stress. The amygdala detects whether a stimulus (person or event) is threatening and the hippocampus, the center of short-term memory, links the fear response to the context in which the threatening stimulus or event occurred.


1. Neurology | Limbic System Anatomy & Function
(Ninja Nerd)
2. The Brain's Hippocampus - its location and function explained by Psychology Professor Bruce Hinrichs
3. Structure and function of the hippocampus
4. The hippocampal formation: a short overview
(Martin Pyka)
5. 2-Minute Neuroscience: Limbic System
(Neuroscientifically Challenged)
6. Fornix of the Brain: Structure & Function - Human Anatomy | Kenhub
(Kenhub - Learn Human Anatomy)


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